Parathyroid adenoma is a small tumor of the parathyroid gland and is known to be the most common disorder of the gland. Parathyroid adenomas are benign therefore it is not malignant. The parathyroid gland increases in size and it tends to produce excess parathyroid hormones. This is also known as primary hyperparathyroidism. Patients are not aware of the tumors in most cases. Tumors are only found when patient’s routine blood test results show elevated blood calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. In serious cases, kidney stones can form as the bone density diminishes. The parathyroid glands in the neck are responsible for controlling calcium use and removal in the body. The parathyroid glands do this by producing parathyroid hormones or PTH. PTH helps in controlling calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus levels within in the blood and bone. Parathyroid adenomas may also be due to genetic problems. If there is a family history of someone having a parathyroid adenoma, it is more likely for the present and upcoming generations to suffer from the same condition. Every effort must be made to treat these conditions prior to having a patient undergo a surgery.